## Why & How Cpm came into existence? Weren’t Cp & Cpk enough to trouble us?

In the earlier post (see earlier post “what is Taguchi Loss function?”) we end up the discussion stating that Cp need to be penalized for the deviation of the process mean from the specification mean.

If you are producing goods near to LSL or USL hence, the chances of rejection increases which in turn increases the chances of reprocessing and rework thereby increasing the cost. Even if you manage to pass the quality on borderline then your customer has to adjust his process accordingly to accommodate your product thereby, increasing his set-up time and cost involved in readjusting his process. Moreover, the variance from your product and the variance from the customer’s process just get adds up to given final product with more variance (remember! Variance has an additive property).

It’s fine that we need to produce goods and services at the center of the specification, which means that we should know the position of process mean with respect to the center of the customer’s specifications. Hence another index was created called as Cpm was introduced which compensates for the deviation of process mean from the specification mean.

For calculating Cpm, the Cp formula is modified where the total variance of the system becomes

Where μ = process mean & T = specification mean or target specification

Hence, Cp formula

is modified to

This is necessary because if I can keep the process mean and the specification mean near to each other, the chances of touching the specification limits would be less which in turn would reduce the chances of reprocessing and we can control the process in a better way.

If μ = T, then Cpm = Cpk = Cp

Related Posts

What Taguchi Loss Function has to do with Cpm?

Car Parking & Six-Sigma

What’s the big deal, let’s rebuild the garage to fit the bigger car!

How the garage/car example and the six-sigma (6σ) process are related?

Now Let’s start talking about 6sigma

What do we mean by garage’s width = 12σ and car’s width = 6σ?

Kindly provide feedback for our continuous journey

## What Taguchi Loss Function has to do with Cpm?

The traditional way of quality control can be called as “GOAL-POST” approach where, the possible out-come is goal or no-goal. Similarly, QA used to focus only on the end product’s quality with two possible outcomes, pass or fail.

Later on Taguchi gave the concept of producing products with quality targeted at the center of the customer’s specifications. He stated that as we move away from the center of the specification, we incur cost either at the producer’s end or at the consumer’s end in the form of re-work and re-processing. Holistically, it’s a loss to the society.

For example;

Buying a readymade suit, it is very difficult to find a suit that perfectly matches your body’s contour, hence you end up going for alterations. This incurs cost. Whereas, if you get a suit stitched by a tailor that fits your body contour (specification), it would not incur any extra cost in rework.

Let’s revise what we learned in “car parking” example (see links below). The Cp only focuses on how far the process control limits (UCL & LCL) are from the customer’s specification limits (USL & LSL) …. it doesn’t take into the account the deviation of process mean from the specification mean. Hence, we  require another index which can penalize the Cp for the above deviation and this new index is called as Cpm.

Related Posts

Why & How Cpm came into existence? Isn’t Cpk was not enough to trouble us?

Car Parking & Six-Sigma

What’s the big deal, let’s rebuild the garage to fit the bigger car!

How the garage/car example and the six-sigma (6σ) process are related?

Now Let’s start talking about 6sigma

What do we mean by garage’s width = 12σ and car’s width = 6σ?

Kindly provide feedback for our continuous journey